Tom Johnstone

Tom JohnstoneI am undertaking research into the neural basis of emotion and cognition at the Waisman Laboratory for Brain Imaging and Behavior. My research focuses on understanding the interaction between cognitive and affective processes using fMRI in conjunction with cognitive experimental techniques. My principle research question is how subcortical, prefrontal and sensory cortex interact in the perception and production of expressive behaviour. This represents an extension of my Ph.D. work on the acoustic and physiological basis of emotional prosody. I am also involved in two longitudinal studies of the neural changes associated with treatment of Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Depression. In these studies we are specifically interested in the top-down cortical regulation of subcortical neural circuits, and the consequences of regulatory failure in terms of autonomic, behvioural and subjective outcomes. 

My methodological research entails the development of efficient experimental designs and analysis procedures for a large variety of FMRI experiments in the Waisman Laboratory. In connection with ongoing longitudinal studies of affective disorders, I am studying the test-retest reliability of FMRI measures of brain activation over extended periods. I am a co-investigator on an NIMH-funded project to compare and quantify the function and performance of  the most widely used software packages for FMRI data analysis (click here to see a PDF of the presentation made at the NIMH in May 2003). This project included the collection of a database of FMRI data from 40 experimental participants performing a number of different affective and cognitive tasks.

Contact Information

itjohnstone@facstaff.wisc.edu
Waisman Laboratory for Brain Imaging and Behavior
1500 Highland Avenue, Madison, WI, 53705.
tel : +1 608 263 2743
fax : +1 608 265 8737

Research Interests

Cognition and emotion interaction 
Neural basis of the expression and perception of emotion
FMRI experimental design, signal processing and data analysis techniques 
Quantifying the test-retest reliability of fMRI data
Speech signal analysis tailored to psychological research on nonlinguistic aspects of speech and voice 

Links to design and analysis resources

fMRI data processing using AFNI

Eprime experimental control software

 

Publications & presentations

Edited Book

Scherer, K. R., Schorr, A., & Johnstone, T. (2001). Appraisal processes in emotion: Theory, Methods, Research. New York: Oxford University Press.

Book Chapters

Norris, C. J., Coan, J. A., & Johnstone, T. (in press). Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and the Study of Emotion. To appear in J.A. Coan & J. A. Allen (Eds.), Handbook of Emotion Elicitation and Assessment.

Scherer, K. R., Johnstone, T. & Klasmeyer, G. (2003). Vocal expression of emotion. In R. J. Davidson, H. Goldsmith, K. R. Scherer (Eds.). Handbook of the Affective Sciences (pp. 433-456). New York: Oxford University Press.

Johnstone, T., van Reekum, C. M., & Scherer, K. R. (2001).Vocal correlates of appraisal processes. In K.R. Scherer, A. Schorr, & T. Johnstone (Eds.). Appraisal processes in emotion: Theory, Methods, Research (pp. 271-284). New York: Oxford University Press.

Johnstone, T. & Scherer, K. R. (2000). Vocal Communication of Emotion. In M. Lewis & J. Haviland (Eds.). Handbook of Emotions, Second Edition (pp. 220-235). New York: Guilford Press.

Articles

Johnstone, T., van Reekum, C. M., Oakes, T. R., & Davidson, R. J. The voice of emotion:  An FMRI study of neural responses to angry and happy vocal expressions. Social, Cognitive, and Affective Neuroscience, in press.PDF

Salomons, T. V., Johnstone, T., Backonja, M. M., Davidson, R. J. Individual Differences in the Effects of Perceived Controllability on Pain Perception: Critical Role of the Prefrontal Cortex. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, in press.

Oakes, T. R., Fox, A. S., Johnstone, T., Chung, M., Kalin, N., & Davidson, R. J. Integrating VBM into the general linear model with voxelwise anatomical covariates. Neuroimage, in press.

Nacewicz, B.M., Dalton, K.M., Johnstone, T., Long, M., McAuliff, E.M., Oakes, T.R., Alexander, A.L. & Davidson, R.J. Amygdala Volume and Nonverbal Social Impairment in Adolescent and Adult Males with Autism. Archives of General Psychiatry, in press.

van Reekum, C. M., Urry, H. L., Johnstone, T., Thurow, M. E., Frye, C. J., Jackson, C. A., Schaefer, H. S., Alexander, A. L., & Davidson, R. J. Individual differences in amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex activity are associated with affective judgment speed and psychological well-being. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, in press.

Johnstone, T., Ores Walsh, K. S., Greischar, L. L., Alexander, A. L., Fox, A. S., Davidson, R. J., & Oakes, T. R. (2006). Motion correction and the use of motion covariates in multiple-subject fMRI analysis. Human Brain Mapping, 27, 779-788.PDF

Urry, H. L., van Reekum, C. M., Johnstone, T., Kalin, N. H., Thurow, M. E., Schaefer, H. S., Jackson, C. A., Frye, C. J., Greischar, L. L., Alexander, A. L., & Davidson, R. J. (2006). Amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex are inversely coupled during regulation of negative affect and predict the diurnal pattern of cortisol secretion among older adults. Journal of Neuroscience, 26,4415-4425.PDF Supporting Info.

Johnstone, T., van Reekum, C. M., Hird, K., Kirsner, K., Scherer, K. R. (2005). Affective speech elicited with a computer game. Emotion, 5, 513-518.

Johnstone, T., Somerville, L. H., Alexander, A. L., Oakes, T. R., Davidson, R. J., Kalin, N. H., & Whalen, P. J. (2005). Stability of Amygdala BOLD Response to Fearful Faces over Multiple Scan Sessions. Neuroimage, 25, 1112-1123.PDF

Oakes, T.R., Johnstone, T., Ores Walsh, K.S., Greischar, L.L, Alexander, A.L., Fox, A.S., & Davidson, R.J. (2005). Comparison of fMRI motion correction software tools. Neuroimage, 28, 529-543.PDF

Rosenkranz, M. A., Busse, W. W., Johnstone, T., Swenson, C. A., Crisafi, G. M., Jackson, M. M., Bosch, J. A., Sheridan, J. F., & Davidson, R. J. (2005). Neural circuitry underlying the interaction between emotion and asthma symptom exacerbation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 102, 13319-13324.

Dalton, K. M., Nacewicz, B. M., Johnstone, T., Schaefer, H. S., Gernsbacher, M. A., Goldsmith, H. H., Alexander, A. L. & Davidson, R. J. Gaze-fixation and the neural circuitry of face processing in autism. Nature Neuroscience, 8, 519-526.PDF

Whalen, P. J., Kagan, J., Cook, R. G., Davis, C., Kim, H., Polis, S., McLaren, D. G., Somerville, L. H., McLean, A. A., Maxwell, J. S., Johnstone, T. (2004). Human Amygdala Responsivity to Masked Fearful Eye Whites. Science, 306, 2061.PDF  Supporting Info.

Kim, H., Somerville, L.H., Johnstone, T., Polis, S., Alexander, A.L., Shin, L.M., & Whalen, P.J. Contextual modulation of amygdala responsivity to surprised faces. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 16, 1730-1745.PDF

Salomons, T.V., Johnstone, T., Backonja, M-M., Davidson, R.J. Perceived Controllability Modulates the Neural Response to Pain. Journal of Neuroscience, 24, 7199-7203.PDF

Somerville, L. H., Kim, H., Johnstone, T., Alexander, A., & Whalen, P. J. (2004). Human amygdala response during presentation of happy and neutral faces: Correlations with state anxiety. Biological Psychiatry, 55, 897-903.PDF

Kim, H., Somerville, L. H., Johnstone, T., Alexander, A., & Whalen, P. J. (2004). Inverse amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex responses to surprised faces. Neuroreport, 14, 2317-2322.PDF

van Reekum, C. M., Johnstone, T., Banse, R., Etter, A., Wehrle, T., & Scherer, K. R. (2004). Psychophysiological Responses to Appraisal Dimensions in a Computer Game. Cognition and Emotion, 18, 663-688.

Kim, H., Somerville, L. H., McClean, A. A., Johnstone, T., Shin, L. M., & Whalen, P. J. (2003). Functional MRI Responses of the Human Dorsal Amygdala/Substantia Innominata Region to Facial Expressions of Emotion. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 985, 533-535.

Karlsson, I., Bänziger, T., Dankovicová, J., Johnstone, T., Lindberg, J., Melin, H., Nolan, F., & Scherer, K.R. (2000). Speaker verification with elicited speaking-styles. Speech Communication, 31, 121-129.

Selected Conference Presentations

Johnstone, T., Oakes, T., Ores-Walsh, K. (2006). GLM analysis of fMRI data: a comparison of software tools and methods. Presented at the 12th Annual Meeting of the Organization for Human Brain Mapping, Florence.

Johnstone, T., Alexander, A. L., Ores, K. S., Oakes, T. R. (2005). WINTER: Wisconsin Neuroimaging Tools Evaluation Resource. Presented at the 11th Annual Meeting of the Organization for Human Brain Mapping, Toronto.

Johnstone, T., Ores, K. S., Oakes, T. R. (2004). Task-related modulation of amygdala response to emotional expressions. Presented at the 10th Annual Meeting of the Organization for Human Brain Mapping, Budapest.

Oakes, T. R., Ores, K. S., Johnstone, T., Alexander, A. L., Fox, A. S., & Davidson, R. J. (2004). Comparison of fMRI Motion Corrections Using Realistic Synthetic Data. Presented at the 10th Annual Meeting of the Organization for Human Brain Mapping, Budapest.

Johnstone, T., Somerville, L. H., Nitschke, J. B., Alexander, A. L., Davidson, R. J., Kalin, N. H., Whalen, P. J. (2003). Stability of Amygdala Response to Fearful Faces over Multiple Scan Sessions. Presented at the 9th Annual Meeting of the Organization for Human Brain Mapping, New York.

Somerville, L. H., Kim, H., McLaren, D. G., Johnstone, T., Whalen, P. J. (2003). State Anxiety Correlates with Human Amygdala Response During Presentation of Happy and Neutral Faces. Presented at the 9th Annual Meeting of the Organization for Human Brain Mapping, New York.

Johnstone, T., Whalen, P. J., Nitschke, J. B., Somerville, L. H., Ihde-Scholl, T., Tarleton, L. C., Seman, L. M., Davidson, R. J., & Kalin, N. H. (2002). Amygdala activation to fearful facial expressions in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Presented at the 32nd Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience, Orlando.

Kim, J. H., Somerville, L. H., McLean, A. A., Johnstone, T., Shin, L. M., & Whalen, P. J (2002). Functional MRI responses of the human dorsal and ventral amygdaloid regions to facial expressions of emotion. Presented at the 32nd Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience, Orlando.

Schaefer, H. S., Larson, C. L., Johnstone, T., Davidson, R. J. (2002). Overlapping yet distinct networks implicated in normal versus pathological human fear. Presented at the 32nd Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience, Orlando.

Nitschke, J. B., Johnstone, T., Possin, A. A., Mackiewicz, K. L., Somerville, L. H., Schaefer, H. S., Whalen, P. J., Seman, L. M., Kalin, N. H., & Davidson, R. J. (2002). Altered fMRI responses to the anticipation of and exposure to aversion in generalized anxiety disorder. Presented at the 32nd Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience, Orlando.

Johnstone, T. & Scherer, K. R. (2000). Acoustic analysis of experimentally induced emotional speech. Proceedings of the XIth conference of the International Society for Research in Emotions, Québec.

Johnstone, T. & Scherer, K.R. (2000). The effects of emotion on physiology and voice. Presented at the 40th Annual Meeting of the Society for Psychophysiological Research, San Diego.

Scherer, K. R., Johnstone, T., Klasmeyer, G., & Bänziger, T. (2000).Can automatic speaker verification be improved by training the algorithms on emotional speech? Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Spoken Language Processing ICSLP2000, Beijing, China.

Johnstone, T. & Scherer, K. R. (1999). The effects of emotions on voice quality. Proceedings of the XIVth International Congress of Phonetic Sciences.

Karlsson I, Banziger T, Dankovicová J, Johnstone T, Lindberg J, Melin H, Nolan F & Scherer K. (1998). Within-speaker variability due to speaking manners. Proceedings of ICSLP98, International Conference on Spoken Language Processing, Sydney, Australia.

Scherer, K. R., Johnstone, T., & Bänziger, T. (1998). Automatic verification of emotionally stressed speakers: The problem of individual differences. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Speech and Computer, St. Petersburg.

Scherer, K. R., Johnstone, T., & Sangsue, J. (1998). L'état émotionnel du locuteur: facteur négligé mais non négligeable pour la technologie de la parole. Actes des XXIIèmes Journées d'Etudes sur la Parole, Martigny.

Karlsson I, Banziger T, Dankovicová J, Johnstone T, Lindberg J, Melin H, Nolan F & Scherer K (1998). Within speaker variation due to induced stress. In: Branderud P & Traunmüller H (eds). Proc of Fonetik -98, The Swedish Phonetics Conference, Stockholm University, May 27-29, 1998; 150-153.

I. Karlsson, I., Bänziger, T., Dankovicová, J., Johnstone, T., Lindberg, J., Melin, H., Nolan, F., & Scherer, K.R. (1998). Speaker verification with elicited speaking-styles in the Verivox project. Proceedings of IEEE/ESCA Workshop on Speaker Recognition and its Commercial and Forensic Applications, Avignon.

van Reekum, C. M., Johnstone, T., & Scherer, K. R. (1997). Multimodal measurement of emotion induced by the manipulation of appraisals in a computer game. Presented at the 3rd European Congress of Psychophysiology, Konstanz.

Johnstone, I. T. (1996). Emotional speech elicited using computer games.Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Spoken Language Processing, 3, 1985-1988.

Johnstone, I. T. and Scherer, K. R. (1995). Spectral Measurement of Voice Quality in Opera Singers: The Case of Gruberova.Proceedings of the XIIIth International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, 1, 218-221.

Johnstone, I. T., Banse, R. and Scherer, K. R. (1995). Acoustic Profiles from Prototypical Vocal Expressions of Emotion. Proceedings of the XIIIth International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, 4, 2-5.